So far I have been rather sceptical about the gene connection to heart disease simply because some populations have little HD and yet acquire it readily when they emigrate to places like the USA. This suggests that any supposed genetic protection is not doing them much good when they hit America. A part of me suspects that finding gene connections with simple genetic tests is a wonderful way for drug companies to get people onto drugs even earlier in life, after all plenty of people are going to run scared when they find out that despite being in seemingly good health at the age of 20 they are nevertheless in the high risk gene camp.
The latest research suggests that there are 6 of these gene camps associated with the APOE gene. Each one is a pair of factors, E2E2, E2E3, E2E4, E3E3, E3E4 and E4E4. From the point of view of cardio risk the worse category is E4E4 followed by E3E4. E2E2 is considered low risk with E3E3 being the average reading.
The current thinking is that E4 carriers are far more prone to have raised LDL levels and thus increased risk of Heart Disease. There is even a suggestion that the correct diet for each of these categories needs to be different with E4 carriers needing a low fat diet with high carb’s whilst the E2 carriers fairing best from a high fat low carb diet.
My personal category is E3E4 which might explain my previous blog theme where I mentioned that eating eggs and liver for a week seemed to spike my Cholesterol, whereas for many people cholesterol laden food does not have too much of an effect on their cholesterol levels.
There is an overview of this topic at the following link
There is also a book covering the area at
The category you are in could also have an effect on whether you gain a positive LDL response to alcohol or not. Some research has suggested that E2 carriers get positive LDL reactions to drinking alcohol whilst E4 carriers do not. So if you are downing the red wine in search of the French paradox and you are an E4 carrier, think again.


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